I sent The New Yorker the following letter recently in reply to a very interesting essay by Louis Menand on the complicated interaction between the battle over civil rights for women and minorities. They have not printed it so I thought I would share it with readers of the blog:
To the editor,
Louis Menand is to be commended for bringing to light certain aspects of what I and my co-author, the late Hal Draper, describe in our study of the ERA (The Hidden History of the Equal Rights Amendment) coincidentally just published in the last few weeks by the Center for Socialist History.
While Mr. Menand notes correctly the close ties between business interests and proponents of the ERA he leaves out of his account one key historical fact and misstates one key impact of the passage of Title VII. The two are related in an important way and together they act as a key to understanding the full story we set out in detail in our book.
The key historical fact is that there were, always and from the very earliest period following suffrage, two versions the ERA. Left and liberal activists (including, for example, the social feminist Florence Kelley and the liberal Eleanor Roosevelt) promoted a “labor” ERA that would, indeed, have extended the benefits of protective labor legislation to men workers. Yet at every turn this genuinely progressive alternative ERA was attacked and undermined by Alice Paul and her allies in the business community who backed what we term the “pure” version of the ERA. There is no surprise about this alliance nor was there ever any confusion – Paul herself was from an upper class background and was a natural ally of business and professional women who aspired to join their male business counterparts at the top of our socio-economic hierarchy. Paul and her colleagues in the National Woman’s Party were enthusiastic about ending expensive labor laws that protected working class women.
The related misstatement is Mr. Menand’s bald conclusion that “Labor-protection laws did not disappear, as many liberals had feared; they were written to cover both sexes.” Oddly this follows his correct statement that a federal court found such laws unconstitutional. The court opinion is accurately cited [see Rosenfeld v. Southern Pacific, 444 F.2d 1219], his follow on conclusion has no basis. In state after state, in the immediate wake of the passage of Title VII, protective labor laws were stripped from the books and any chance of extending them to men workers was gone.
At least one of the authors cited by Mr. Menand clearly concurs. Jo Freeman wrote in her study of Title VII: “As a consequence [of the passage of Title VII] the federal courts voided state protective laws on the grounds that they were in conflict with the federal prohibition against sex discrimination …. These laws, which limited the hours women could work, the weights they could lift, often prohibited night work and entry into some occupations considered too dangerous for women, had been actively sought during the first half of the twentieth century by an earlier generation of women activists …. “[citations omitted]
We describe in detail this process in the book, including for example the bitter battle over these labor laws fought out in California between trade union women and the National Organization for Women.
Only when one puts these pieces of the ERA’s history together can one explain its ultimate failure during the ratification process, a step that Mr. Menand does not, understandably, attempt in his essay. By the time the amendment emerged from the Congress for ratification by the states, Title VII had already carried out the business side of the original Alice Paul/business agenda – elimination of protective labor laws. An attempt to extend the period for ratification of the ERA was defeated as the erstwhile allies of Alice Paul in Congress, such as Senator John Tower of Tennessee, backed away from her lifelong project.
Both working women and professional women still face significant discrimination in the workplace today and thus a full understanding of this history is crucial.